The hip joint is comprised of the head of the thigh-bone (femur) and a socket (acetabulum), which is part of the pelvis. The hip is a ball and socket joint and the ends of the bones are lined with articular cartilage. The head of the femur freely rotates within the acetabulum with very little friction. The rim of the socket is lined with a fibro-cartilaginous lip of tissue called the labrum and this acts to stabilize the hip joint and regulate fluid into and out of the hip joint. The normal acetabulum covers the superior, anterior and posterior portions of the femoral head.
Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI) / Hip Impingement
FAI is an abnormality of the hip socket that causes hip pain in some patients. One or both bones of the hip have an abnormal shape that causes the two bones of the hip joint to rub against each other, which causes damage to the labrum and cartilage. At Austin Sports Medicine a hip arthroscopy or hip scope may be used to remove excess bone and repair the labrum of the hip with FAI.
A labral tear of the hip can be painful for a patient and is sometimes caused by hip impingement (FAI) or hip dysplasia. Some patients may benefit from a hip arthroscopy to repair the damaged labrum. Additionally the underlying shape of the hip may need to be addressed to prevent or delay further damage to the hip. Austin Sports Medicine’s Hip Preservation services allow a full complement of treatment options for labral tears.
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) / Hip Dysplasia
Hip dysplasia is a condition defined by inadequate development of the acetabulum (hip socket). The resulting shape of the socket is more dish-shaped in comparison to the normal cup-shape of the well developed acetabulum. The upper portion of the acetabulum is angled upward rather than having a more normal horizontal orientation. This causes the head of the femur to be under-covered and increases the contact pressures on the cartilage and labrum, which in turn places these structures at risk for damage. A periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a treatment option for severe hip dysplasia and is offered at Austin Sports Medicine.